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Your Solar Guide: Solar Panel Performance Terminology

The quality of solar panels determines the efficiency and performance of your system. Not all company’s install high-quality panels on your project. Solar Chief is committed to equipping its customers with the most reliable and efficient solar panels. To learn more about Solar Chief and contact us today!


Solar Panel Performance Terminology

Solar Efficiency Terms

AMPM standard: rating indicates how solar panels perform from peak sunlight hours to nonpeak sunlight hours. Indicates how a panel will perform and takes into account light variations during the day, ambient temperatures and factors related to air mass that affect solar energy potential.

Normal operating cell temperature (NOCT) rating: rating of a solar power system’s potential to withstand factors that affect efficiency. The calculation uses peak sunshine during the assessment.

Peak watt rating: this number reflects testing in laboratory conditions and shows how much energy in peak watts (Wp) a solar module generates.

Solar Energy Performance Terms

Current at maximum power (Im): rates the solar panel’s production of electricity after inverting solar power into DC power.

Current-voltage (IV): ratings compare the differences in terms of output when insolation (the amount of light that falls on a panel) and temperature vary. This rating is useful for learning how a solar panel will perform as the temperature changes and sunlight potential decreases on a cloudy day.

Nominal voltage (Vn): shows the voltage compatible with the solar panels. This often ranges from six to 24 volts, but it can be 48 volts or even more.

Rated power: shows the solar panel’s ability to sustain power output throughout the day, defines the panel’s peak capacity.

Temperature at rated power: is a standard that manufacturers use to rate solar panels’ performance at a specific temperature.

Voltage at peak power (Vp): the panel’s maximum voltage output when it’s producing electricity at its highest rate.

Solar Impacts on Wildlife

Solar Impacts on Wildlife

The goal of solar installs is to reduce environmental impacts. So it is important to understand if the installation of solar projects will harm wildlife. In a world where oil spills are presently contaminating the habitat, food, and water supply around them, solar power is looking like a great clean solution. Below is research done on the impact large scale farm projects have on wildlife.

Solar modules require the use of other electrical equipment, such as inverters and connection boxes, which emit some noise. The frequency of most inverters is 50-60 Hz, the same as AC electricity in your home or commercial building, which is within the range audible to humans and well below the higher frequencies used to repel animals. Sound is generally not audible at the edge of the fenced boundary, but if audible, the sound is similar in volume to background noises and dissipates to inaudible 50 – 150 feet from the edge of the boundary. 

Solar and Birds

The birds are much better off with solar panels than in oil spills. But not all renewable energy is a safe haven for animals. Collisions with wind turbines cause bird deaths everyday. Birds are unlikely to be impacted by stationary solar array installation.

Solar modules create an opportunity for avian interactions. PV modules are generally less reflective than windows and have been installed and monitored for avian impacts at numerous airports. Nonetheless, avian injuries and mortalities may occur through collisions with power lines, vehicles, fencing, and solar equipment and structures such as modules. There are some concerns that birds might misconstrue solar installations for bodies of water and attempt to land on them, but this has not been proven. A 2017 comprehensive survey of all solar and bird interactions in the UK determined that “bird collision risk from solar panels is very low. There is likely to be more of a collision risk to birds presented by infrastructure associated with solar PV developments, such as overhead power lines.”

Source: Energy.gov

Financial Incentives: Impact on Property Value

Solar Homes Sell for a Premium

Buying a solar energy system will likely increase your home’s value. A recent study found that solar panels are viewed as upgrades, just like a renovated kitchen or a finished basement, and home buyers across the country have been willing to pay a premium of about $15,000 for a home with an average-sized solar array. Additionally, there is evidence homes with solar panels sell faster than those without. In 2008, California homes with energy efficient features and PV were found to sell faster than homes that consume more energy. Keep in mind, these studies focused on homeowner-owned solar arrays.

Source: Energy.gov

Going Solar: Adding to Existing System

As always contact Solar Chief to discuss the best option for the most efficient, reliable, and cost effective system. Solar Chief offers Free Site Evaluations and Free Quotes.

Why add to a existing solar array?

  • Increased Electrical Usage: becoming more relaxed about energy use, example- purchasing an electric vehicle, expanding your home
  • Smaller Installments: expand system slowly, offsets electrical bill, financial position

When upgrading your solar panel system, selecting identical solar panels is the best bet to ensure your solar array is efficient. The type of inverter is based on your system size, so your original inverter might not have the capacity to handle additional electricity. There are many different options when adding to your solar arrays. If your home’s roof is out of space for your expansion, you might consider a ground-mounted system. Consult Solar Chief to understand your best options for solar expansion.

Top 10 Things to Know Before Going Solar

Top 10 Things You Should Know Before Going Solar

Solar panel systems are systems that turn sunlight into electricity. You can use the electricity generated by your solar panel system to power your home, your business, or even your car. Here are the top ten things you should know before going solar.

Solar panel systems are a great way for you to save your money, no matter what your budget is.

If you can afford to pay your electricity bill every month, you can afford to install a solar panel system. With a $0-down solar loan, solar lease or PPA, you can finance your system and see immediate savings.

Installing a solar panel system is a great investment.

Investing in a solar panel system can deliver better returns than stocks and bonds – and now is the right time to make that investment. While solar photovoltaic technology is improving incrementally each year, financial incentives and rebates will decrease as solar becomes more popular.

Solar photovoltaic systems have been around for a long time.

Solar photovoltaic systems are a well-proven technology first invented in 1954 by scientists at Bell Labs. Today, solar panels are installed on over one million homes in the U.S.

Solar panel systems are highly durable.

Solar photovoltaic panels are made of tempered glass and can withstand hail, snow, rain, and high winds. They can even extend the life of your roof by protecting it from daily wear and tear.

Solar power systems can produce electricity for 25 or more years.

Most solar panel manufacturers offer a 25-year power production warranty guaranteeing that their solar panels will continue to generate electricity at a certain capacity for the warranty’s duration.

Solar power systems are practically maintenance-free.

Solar panel systems are incredibly durable. Except in extreme circumstances, they don’t need to be washed or cleaned.

Solar panels can be installed almost anywhere in the United States.

Most locations in the United States get enough sunlight to produce enough electricity from solar panels. The most important factors to consider when you evaluate your solar panel options are the rates you pay for electricity and the rebates and incentives available to you.

Solar energy systems are tied to the electric grid and do not require batteries to store power.

When you install a solar energy system on your property, you remain connected to the electricity grid. At times when your system produces more electricity than you use, you receive credit for the electricity you send to the grid; if you need more electricity than your solar energy system is producing, you can draw it from the grid.

Solar power systems can eliminate most of your electricity bill.

With the right planning, your solar panels can generate enough electricity to meet your needs over a 12-month period. If you have enough roof space to install the right size solar panel system, the power that your panels will produce will effectively eliminate most of your electricity bill.

Solar photovoltaic panels can be installed on the roof of your home or commercial property, on the ground or on a solar canopy.

Solar panels can be installed practically anywhere that receives direct sunshine for most of the day and is not shaded by trees or buildings. Panels that face south will produce the most electricity, but your panels can also face east or west.

Source: www.energysage.com

Solar Development News in South Carolina

New Bill Being Passed in South Carolina in Favor of Solar Energy

Last week at the South Carolina Statehouse the solar industry had a major victory when the state legislature unanimously voted to pass the energy freedom act. This bill will help to greatly lower electricity costs and create jobs in South Carolina.

The solar energy industries association (or SEIA) played an instrumental role in the passing of this bill. They began with the goals to eliminate the net metering cap for residential solar, ensuring fair and transparent rates for residential and large scale solar, reforming the process behind utility resource planning, ensuring fair and timely contracts for large-scale solar providers, and to make solar more available and accessible for all people in South Carolina.

Their campaigning strategy consisted of organizing site visits, holding lobby days, and creating educational collateral to earn a bipartisan consensus on solar policy among South Carolina lawmakers in Columbia.

Some of the other main players that SEIA worked with in order to have this bill passes were the South Carolina Solar Business Alliance, the Palmetto Conservative Solar Coalition, Conservative Voters of South Carolina, South Carolina Coastal Conservation League, and the Southern Environmental Law Center. In addition to this large group of organizations, 33 solar companies also signed a joint letter to the Senate and many even lobbied their representatives directly. They also worked with the local business community, resulting in 32 corporations submitting a letter of support for the bill.

All of these efforts resulted in a unanimous vote in the House in February, and another unanimous vote in the Senate last week. This win is an example of what happens when the solar industry comes together to speak with one voice to reach a common goal.

Although, even with these major victories, we must still wait for Governor McMaster to sign the legislation into law so that clean energy can start working again for people in South Carolina.

Source: www.seia.org

The History of Solar Panels

The History of Solar Panels

For the last century and a half, inventors have been working hard to make improvements in the efficiency and aesthetics of solar technology.

Solar energy technology began with a young physicist in France, Edmond Becquerel. In 1839, Becquerel observed and discovered the photovoltaic effect. This is the process that produces a voltage or electric current when exposed to light or radiant energy. A few decades later, French mathematician, Augustin Mouchot, began registered patents for solar-powered engines in the 1860s. All around the world inventors were inspired by the patents and began filing for patents on solar powered devices as early as 1888.

In 1883 New York inventor Charles Fritts created the first solar cell by coating selenium with a thin layer of gold. Fritts reported that the selenium module produced a current that was continuous, constant, and of considerable force. This cell achieved an energy conversion rate of 1 to 2 percent, but most modern solar cells work at an efficiency rate of 15 to 20 percent. While it was only a small amount of energy, this was the beginning of photovoltaic solar innovation in America.

A few years later in 1888, Edward Weston received two patents for solar cells. For these patents, Weston proposed “to transform radiant energy derived from the sun into electrical energy, or through electrical energy into mechanical energy.” Light energy is focused by a lens onto the solar cell. The light heats up the solar cell and causes electrons to be released and current to flow. In this instance, light creates heat, which creates electricity. This is the reverse of the way an incandescent light bulb works, converting electricity to heat that then generates light.

Also in 1888, Russian scientist Aleksandr Stoletov created the first solar cell based on the photoelectric effect. This is when light falls on a material and electrons are released. In 1894, American inventor Melvin Severy received patents for what was basically early solar cells based on the discovery of the photoelectric effect. Severy also received a second patent in 1889 which was also meant for using the suns thermal energy to produce electricity for heat, light, and power.

Almost a decade later, American inventor Harry Reagan received patents for thermal batteries which are used to store and release thermal energy. This battery was invented to collect and store heat by having a large mass that can heat up and release energy. Systems today use this technology to generate electricity by conventional turbines. In 1897, Reagan was granted a patent for an application of solar heat to thermo batteries. His invention was a means of collecting, storing, and distributing solar heat as needed.

In the 1950s, Bell Laboratories realized that semiconducting materials were more efficient than selenium. They created a solar cell that was 6 percent more efficient. While it was considered the first practical device for converting solar energy to electricity, it was still cost prohibitive for most people. Silicon solar cells are expensive to produce, and when you combine multiple cells to create a solar panel, it’s even more expensive for the public to purchase. The University of Delaware is credited with creating one of the first solar buildings, “Solar One,” in 1973. The construction ran on a combination of solar thermal and solar photovoltaic power. The building didn’t use solar panels; instead, solar was integrated into the rooftop.

In the 1970s, an energy crisis in the US began and Congress passed the Solar Energy Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1974. The government was more committed than ever to make solar power a more viable and affordable option for the public. After the debut of “Solar One,” people saw solar energy as an option for their homes. Growth slowed in the 1980s due to the drop in traditional energy prices. But in the next decades, the federal government was more involved with solar energy research and development, creating grants and tax incentives for those who used solar systems. According to Solar Energy Industries Association, solar has had an average annual growth rate of 50 percent in the last 10 years in the United States, largely due to the Solar Investment Tax Credit enacted in 2006. Installing solar is also more affordable now due to installation costs dropping over 70 percent in the last decade.

Source: www.smithsonianmag.com

Your Solar Guide: What is Solar Energy?

What is Solar Energy?

Solar energy is the most abundant energy source on Earth, and as we continue to develop ways to capture it, it is an important aspect of our clean energy future.

During the day when the sun is shining, each particle of sunlight that reaches earth contains energy that fuels our planet. Solar energy is the ultimate source responsible for all of our weather systems and energy sources on earth, and enough solar radiation hits the surface of the planet each hour to theoretically fill our global energy needs for nearly an entire year.

This energy comes from the sun, which is like a massive nuclear reactor. Deep in the Sun’s core, nuclear fusion reactions produce massive amounts of energy that radiates outward from the Sun’s surface and into space in the form of light and heat.

How does solar power work?

Solar power can be harnessed and converted to usable energy using photovoltaics or solar thermal collectors. Although solar energy only accounts for a small amount of overall global energy use, the falling cost of installing solar panels means that more and more people in more places can take advantage of solar energy. Solar is a clean, renewable energy resource, and figures to play an important part in the global energy future.

How to harness solar energy for usable power?

There are many ways to use energy from the sun. The two main ways to use energy from the sun are photovoltaics and solar thermal capture. Photovoltaics are much more common for smaller-scale electricity projects such as a residential solar panel installation, and solar thermal capture is typically only used for electricity production on massive scales in utility solar installations. In addition to producing electricity, lower temperature variations of solar thermal projects can be used for heating and cooling.

Solar is one of the fastest growing and cheapest sources of power in the world and will continue to spread rapidly in the coming years. With solar panel technology improving each year, the economic benefits of solar improve, adding to the environmental perks of choosing a clean, renewable energy source.

Source: www.energysage.com

Your Solar Guide: 5 Things to Check on Your Solar System Every Month

5 Things to Check on Your Solar System Each Month to Keep it Running Smoothly

With their few moving parts and limited maintenance needs, solar panels can typically last years without experiencing any issues. However, in order to keep them working at peak performance and to keep from having any major maintenance issues, it is important to give them preventative care throughout the year. Here are the top five things you should be doing each month in order to keep your solar panels working the best they can.

Watch for dirt and debris buildup

Being sure to keep your solar panels free from any obstructions helps ensure that you are maximizing the efficiency of your system. You should be sure to remove snow, dust, and leaves from your panels on a monthly basis to keep your system running smoothly. However, if your system is installed in a way that could put you at risk of a fall, do not attempt to clean them yourself. Many solar systems are mounted low enough that cleaning is possible from the ground using a land-handled broom. For panels mounted higher, your installer will likely have a solar panel cleanings service to recommend. Having a professional come to clean your panels can help ensure that your panels receive a thorough cleaning and that they will not be damaged in the process.

Inspect your rack and roof penetrations

Solar panels are mounted to your roof with a rack. This rack carries the weight of the panels and holds them to the roof using several sturdy bolt penetrations. A monthly visual inspection is a great way to catch any potential drainage or structural issues before they become serious. While it can be tough to identify drainage issues from the outside, they should be visible from the inside in the form of leaks. You should do a monthly visual inspection of your attic space to see if you notice any leaks under the areas where your panels are mounted.

Missing bolts can also be an indicator of impending rack failure. Panels can loosen in their mounts over time due to snow and wind, so if you do find a potential issue contact your solar panel installer to inspect and repair the rack.

Examine potential corrosion

Solar systems are made with durable and long lasting components, allowing them to produce energy for twenty-five years or more. Your rack and panels will likely be made from corrosion-resistant materials, but after a long period of time corrosion could develop and compromise the strength of your system components. Doing a visual check for corrosion once a month helps to give you the opportunity to address any issues before they become serious.

Check for broken glass

The silicon wafers inside your solar panels are covered by extremely durable tempered glass. This glass is rated to withstand bad weather conditions, even hair storms. However, fallen tree branches or an especially bad storm can result in broken panels. If you notice any broken panels, you should call your solar installer immediately.

Look for faulty wiring

All solar arrays contain an inverter, which converts the direct current the panels produce into the alternating current used in your homes electrical system. In many cases, each panel is wired in a series to one single inverter which creates many potential points of failure.

Faulty wiring can be difficult to diagnose. There will sometimes be a visual indication such as a snapped wire or a broken connection, but this may not always be the case. However, there are two ways to diagnose faulty wiring. Many of the new systems come with real-time production tracking, so if your system uses this technology you can check it to see if it is under-performing. If you have an older system that does not use this technology, you can use your monthly bill as an indicator of any potential issues. If you notice a problem, do not attempt to repair it yourself, but instead be sure to call your installer.

Source: www.solarpowerauthority.com

Innovations in Solar: Breakthrough in New Material to Harness Solar Power

Breakthrough in New Material to Harness Solar Power

Solar energy is quickly becoming one of the most popular forms of clean energy. With new technologies being discovered, solar power is one step closer to becoming the most affordable and efficient way to harness the cleanest, most abundant renewable energy source in the world.

A physicist at the University of Toledo, Dr. Yanfa Yan, has been pushing solar cells to new levels and recently made a significant breakthrough in the chemical formula and process to make the new material to harness solar power.

Yan, who has been working with the U.S. Department of Energy, envisions that the ultra-high efficiency material, a tandem perovskite solar cell, will be ready to debut in full-size solar panels on the consumer market soon.

Perovskites, compound materials with a special crystal structure formed through chemistry, would replace silicon which as of now remains the solar-cell material of choice for converting the suns light into electrical energy.

“We are producing higher-efficiency, lower-cost solar cells that show great promise to help solve the world energy crisis,” Yan said. “The meaningful work will help protect our planet for our children and future generations. We have a problem consuming most of the fossil energies right now, and our collaborative team is focused on refining our innovative way to clean up the mess.”

The research paper published in the journal Science discusses how the photovoltaics team is fine-tuning a mix of lead and tin to advance technology closer to its maximum efficiency. These efforts have recently brought the efficiency of the new solar cells up to about 23 percent, while silicon solar panels on the market today have about an 18 percent efficiency rating.

About five years ago Yan’s team at the University of Toledo identified the ideal properties of perovskites and he has since focused on producing an all-perovskite tandem solar cell that brings together two different solar cells to increase the total electrical power generated by using two different parts of the sun’s spectrum.

While Yan’s team has improved the quality of the materials and the process to manufacture them at a low cost, more progress needs to be made. “The material cost is low and the fabrication cost is low, but the lifetime of the material is still an unknown,” Song said. “We need to continue to increase efficiency and stability.”

“Also, lead is considered a toxic substance,” Yan said. “I am determined to work with the solar industry to ensure solar panels made of this material can be recycled so they don’t cause harm to the environment.”

Source:
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/05/190514081554.htm